Jesus – First Fruits of the RESURRECTION for those fallen asleep

(He is not God of the dead, but of the living ) Mk12:27

ARTICLE 11 “I BELIEVE IN THE RESURRECTION OF THE BODY”

 988 The Christian Creed – the profession of our faith in God, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, and in God’s creative, saving, and sanctifying action – culminates in the proclamation of the resurrection of the dead on the last day and in life everlasting. (532) 

532. For I have come down from heaven, not to do my own will, but the will of Him who sent me; and this is the will of Him who sent me, that I should lose nothing of that has given me, but raise it up at the last day. For this is the will of the Father, that every one who sees the Son and believes in Him should have eternal life; and I will raise him up at the Last Day. (Jn6:38-40).

989 We firmly believe, and hence we hope that, just as Christ is truly risen from the dead and lives for ever, so after death the righteous will live for ever with the risen Christ and he will raise them up on the last day. (533) Our resurrection, like his own, will be the work of the Most Holy Trinity:

533. If the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised Christ Jesus from the dead will give life to your mortal bodies also through his Spirit who dwells in you. (Rom8-11), The body is not meant for immortality, but for the Lord, and the Lord for the body. And god raised the Lord and will also raise us by His power. (1Cor6:13-14). ..knowing that He who raised the Lord Jesus will raise us also with Jesus and bring us with you into His presence. (2Cor4:14). …that I may know the power of His resurrection and may share His sufferings,becoming like Him in His death, that if possible I may attain the resurrection from the dead. (Phil3:10-11)

990 The term “flesh” refers to man in his state of weakness and mortality. (534) The “resurrection of the flesh” (the literal formulation of the Apostles’ Creed) means not only that the immortal soul will live on after death, but that even our “mortal body” will come to life again. (535)

534. Then the Lord said, “My Spirit shall not abide in man forever, for he is flesh, but his days shall be 120 years . (Gen6:3) All day long they seek to injure my cause; all their thoughts are against me for evil. (Ps56:5). A voice says,”Cryl”and I said, “What should I cry?” all flesh is grass, and all its beauty is like the flower of the field.(Is40:6) 535. Ibid (Rom8:11)

991 Belief in the resurrection of the dead has been an essential element of the Christian faith from its beginnings. “The confidence of Christians is the resurrection of the dead; believing this we live.” (536) (Tertillian) (537) How can some of you say that there is no resurrection of the dead? But if there is no resurrection of the dead, then Christ has not been raised; if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is in vain and your faith is in vain. (1Cor15:12-14).

537. But in fact Christ has been raised from the dead, the first fruits of those who have fallen asleep.(1Cor15:20)

I. CHRIST’S RESURRECTION AND OURS

The progressive revelation of the Resurrection

992 God revealed the resurrection of the dead to his people progressively. Hope in the bodily resurrection of the dead established itself as a consequence intrinsic to faith in God as creator of the whole man, soul and body. The creator of heaven and earth is also the one who faithfully maintains his covenant with Abraham and his posterity. It was in this double perspective that faith in the resurrection came to be expressed. In their trials, the Maccabean martyrs confessed: (538) The King of the universe will raise us up to an everlasting renewal of life, because we have died for his laws. (2Mac7:9) (539) One cannot but choose to die at the hands of men and to cherish the hope that God gives of being raised again by him. But for you there will be no resurrection to life. (2Mac7:14) At that time shall arise Michael, the great prince who has charge of your people……; but at that time your people shall be delivered, every one whose name is written in the book And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall wake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt……But go your way till the end; and you shall rest, and stand in your allotted place at the end of the days. (Dan12:1-13).

993 The Pharisees and many of the Lord’s contemporaries hoped for the resurrection. Jesus teaches it firmly. To the Sadducee’s who deny it he answers, (540) “Is not this why you are wrong, that you know neither the scriptures nor the power of God?”(Mk12-24)

. 541  Faith in the resurrection rests on faith in God who “is not God of the dead, but of the living. And as for the dead being raised,have you not read in the book of Moses, in the passage about the bush?, how God said to him, “ I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac,and the God of Jacob? He is not the God of the dead, but of the living; you are quite wrong.” (Mk12:26-28)

994 But there is more. Jesus links faith in the resurrection to his own person: ” I AM the resurrection and the life.” (542) It is Jesus himself who on the last day will raise up those who have believed in him, and who have eaten his body and drunk his blood. (543) Already now in this present life he gives a sign and pledge of this by restoring some of the dead to life, (544) announcing thereby his own resurrection, though it was to be of another order. He speaks of this unique event as the “sign of Jonah,” (545) the sign of the temple: he announces that he will be put to death but rise thereafter on the third day. (546)

542. Jesus said to her {Martha & others at Lazarus tomb}, I AM the resurrection and the life, he who believes in me, though he die, yet shall he live, (Jn11:25) 543 Truly, truly, I say to you, he who hears my word and believes him who sent me,has eternal life, he does not come into judgment but has pass from death to life. Truly, Truly I say to you the hour is coming, and now is, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live.(Jn5:24- 25). No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him; and I will raise him up at the last day. The Jews murmured at him, because he said, ” I AM the bread which came down from heaven”………So Jesus said to them, Truly truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, you have no life in you; he who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. (Jn6:40,54)

544. {A girl is restored to life and an old woman healed} …..My little daughter is at the point of death. Come and lay hands on her,so that she may be made well, and live… who touched me? And He looked around to see who had done it. But the woman, knowing what had been done to her, came in fear and trembling and fell down before Him, and told the whole truth…… While, He was still speaking, there came from the rulers house some who said “Your daughter is dead. Why trouble the Teacher any further?” But ignoring what they said, Jesus said to the ruler of the synagogue, “Do not fear, only believe.” And He allowed no one to follow Him except Peter and James and John the brother of James. When they came to the house of the ruler of the synagogue, he saw a tumult, and people weeping and wailing loudly. And when He entered, He said to them, “Why do you make a tumult and weep? The child is not dead but sleeping” And they laughed at Him. But He put them all outside, and took the father and mother and those who were with him…..and immediately the girl got up and walked;……(Mk521-42). 545. But he answered them, “An evil and adulterous generation seeks for a sign; but no sign shall be given to it except the sign of the prophet Jonah…(Mt12:39) 546 and they will mock Him, and spit on Him and scourge Him, and kill him after three days He will arise. (Mk10:34). Jesus answered them, “Destroy this temple, and 3 days, I will raise it up. (Jn2:19-22).

995 To be a witness to Christ is to be a “witness to his Resurrection,” to “[have eaten and drunk] with him after he rose from the dead.”  (547) Encounters with the risen Christ characterize the Christian hope of resurrection. We shall rise like Christ, with him, and through him.

547. …beginning with the baptism of John until the day He was taken up from us– one of these men must become with us a witness to his resurrection. (Acts1:22). …not to all people but to us who were Chosen as witnesses, who ate and drank with him after he rose from the dead. (Acts10-41)

996 From the beginning, Christian faith in the resurrection has met with incomprehension and opposition. (548) “On no point does the Christian faith encounter more opposition than on the resurrection of the body.” (549) It is very commonly accepted that the life of the human person continues in a spiritual fashion after death. But how can we believe that this body, so clearly mortal, could rise to everlasting life?

548 ..because he has fixed a day on which he will judge the world in righteousness by a man whom he has appointed, and of this he has given assurance to all men by raising him from the dead. Now when they heard of the resurrection of the dead, some mocked, but others said, “We will hear you again about this. (Acts17:31-32). “Ibid” (1Cor15:12-13) 549 like one forsaken among the dead, like the slain that lie in the grave, like those whom you remember no more, for they are cut off from your hand. (Ps88:5)

How do the dead rise?

997 What is “rising”? In death, the separation of the soul from the body, the human body decays and the soul goes to meet God, while awaiting its reunion with its glorified body. God, in his almighty power, will definitively grant incorruptible life to our bodies by reuniting them with our souls, through the power of Jesus’ Resurrection.

998 Who will rise? All the dead will rise, “those who have done good, to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil, to the resurrection of judgment.” (550)

550. …. and come forth, those who have done good, to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil, to the resurrection of judgment. (Jn5:29) ; (Dn12:2). Then the King commanded that the magicians, the enchanters, the sorcerers, and the Chaldeans be summoned, to tell the King his dreams. So they came in and stood before the KING.

999 How? Christ is raised with his own body: “See my hands and my feet, that it is I myself”; (551) but he did not return to an earthly life. So, in him, “all of them will rise again with their own bodies which they now bear,” but Christ “will change our lowly body to be like his glorious body,” into a “spiritual body”: (552) But someone will ask, “How are the dead raised? With what kind of body do they come?” You foolish man! What you sow does not come to life unless it dies. And what you sow is not the body which is to be, but a bare kernel. .. What is sown is perishable, what is raised is imperishable. The dead will be raised imperishable. .. For this perishable nature must put on the imperishable, and this mortal nature must put on immortality.553

551 (Jesus appears to his apostles) “See my hands and my feet that it is I myself, handle me. And see; for a spirit has no flesh and bones as you see that I have”(Lk24:39) And when he had said this he showed his hands and his feet…”have you anything to eat?” They gave him apiece of broiled fish, and he took it and and ate it before them. (Lk24:40-42) 552

, 1000 This “how” exceeds our imagination and understanding; it is accessible only to faith. Yet our participation in the Eucharist already gives us a foretaste of Christ’s transfiguration of our bodies: Just as bread that comes from the earth, after God’s blessing has been invoked upon it, is no longer ordinary bread, but Eucharist, formed of two things, the one earthly and the other heavenly: so too our bodies, which partake of the Eucharist, are no longer corruptible, but possess the hope of resurrection. (556) {St Ireanious}

1001 When? Definitively “at the last day,” “at the end of the world.” (557) Indeed, the resurrection of the dead is closely associated with Christ’s Parousia: For the Lord himself will descend from heaven, with a cry of command, with the archangel’s call, and with the sound of the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ will rise first.(558),

557. “…and this is the will of him who sent me,that I should lose nothing of all that he is given me, but raise it up at the last day” For this is the will of my Father, that everyone who sees the Son and believes in hom should have eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day.”(Jn6:39-40) 558. For the Lord himself will descend, with the archangels call, and with the sound of the trumpet of God. For the dead in Christ will rise first:(1Thes:4:16)

Risen with Christ

1002 Christ will raise us up “on the last day”; but it is also true that, in a certain way, we have already risen with Christ. For, by virtue of the Holy Spirit, Christian life is already now on earth a participation in the death and Resurrection of Christ: And you were buried with him in Baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the working of God, who raised him from the dead … If then you have been raised with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God. (559)

559. and you were buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the workings of God, who raised him from the dead. (Col2:12). If then you have been raised with Christ, seek the things that are above where Christ is,seated at the right hand of god. (Col3:1).

1003 United with Christ by Baptism, believers already truly participate in the heavenly life of the risen Christ, but this life remains “hidden with Christ in God.” (560) The Father has already “raised us up with him, and made us sit with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus.” (561) Nourished with his body in the Eucharist, we already belong to the Body of Christ. When we rise on the last day we “also will appear with him in glory.”(562)

560. For you have died and your life is hidden with Christ in god. (Col3:3) 561. and raised us up with Him, and made us sit with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus. (Eph2:6)
562. When Christ who is our life appears, then you will appear with him in glory. (Col3:3-4)

1004 In expectation of that day, the believer’s body and soul already participate in the dignity of belonging to Christ. This dignity entails the demand that he should treat with respect his own body, but also the body of every other person, especially the suffering: The body [is meant] for the Lord, and the Lord for the body. And God raised the Lord and will also raise us up by his power. Do you not know that your bodies are members of Christ? . . . . You are not your own; . . . . So glorify God in your body. (563)

563. “Food is meant for the stomach and the stomach is meant for the food “ – God will destroy both one and the other. The body is not meant for immortality, but for the Lord, and the Lord for the body. And God raised the Lord and will also raise us up by his power. Do you not know that your bodies are members of Christ? Shall I therefore take the same members the members of Christ and make them prostitutes? Never! (1Cor6:13-15) Do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit within in you, which you have from God? You are not your own, you were bought for a price. So glorify God in your body (1Cor6:19-20)

II. DYING IN CHRIST JESUS

1005 To rise with Christ, we must die with Christ: we must “be away from the body and at home with the Lord.”(564) In that “departure” which is death the soul is separated from the body. (565) It will be reunited with the body on the day of resurrection of the dead. (566)

564. We are of good courage, and we would rather be away from the body, and at home with the Lord (2Cor5:8). 565. I am hard pressed between the two, My desire is to depart and be with Christ, for that is far better.(Phil1:23). 566. Paul VI, CPG p28

Death

1006 “It is in regard to death that man’s condition is most shrouded in doubt.”(567) In a sense bodily death is natural, but for faith it is in fact “the wages of sin.” (568) For those who die in Christ’s grace it is a participation in the death of the Lord, so that they can also share his Resurrection. (569)

567. GS 18 568. For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.(Rom6:23), but of the tree if knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall die.(Gn2:17) 569. What then? Are we Jews any better off? No, not at all; for I have already charged that all men, both Jews and Greeks, are under the power of sin, (Rom:3-9) that I may know him and the power of his resurrection, and may share his sufferings, becoming like him I his death, that if possible I may attain the resurrection from the dead. (Phil3:10-11)

1007 Death is the end of earthly life. Our lives are measured by time, in the course of which we change, grow old and, as with all living beings on earth, death seems like the normal end of life. That aspect of death lends urgency to our lives: remembering our mortality helps us realize that we have only a limited time in which to bring our lives to fulfillment: Remember also your Creator in the days of your youth, …. before the dust returns to the earth as it was, and the spirit returns to God who gave it.(570) 570. Remember also your Creator in the days of your youth, before the evil days come and the years draw nigh, when you will say,”I will have no pleasure in them. (Eccl12:1)

1008 Death is a consequence of sin. The Church’s Magisterium, as authentic interpreter of the affirmations of Scripture and Tradition, teaches that death entered the world on account of man’s sin. (571) Even though man’s nature is mortal God had destined him not to die. Death was therefore contrary to the plans of God the Creator and entered the world as a consequence of sin.(572) “Bodily death, from which man would have been immune had he not sinned” is thus “the last enemy” of man left to be conquered.(573)

571. but of the tree of knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall die.(Gen2:17). But God said,” You shall not eat of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, neither shall you touch it, lest you die.” (Gen3:3) “In the sweat of your face you shall eat bread till you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken. You are dust, and dust you shall return.” (Gen3:19)…because God did not make death, and he does not delight in the death of the living.(Wis1:13) Therefore as sin came into the world through one man and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all men sinned–(Rom5:12), For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord (Rom6:23) 572. and they did not know the secret purposes of God, nor hope for the wages of holiness nor discern the prize for blameless souls; for God created man for in-corruption and made him in the image of his own eternity, but through the devil’s envy death entered the world, and those who belong to his party experience it (Wis2:22-24) 573. The last enemy to be destroyed is death (1Cor15:26).

1009 Death is transformed by Christ. Jesus, the Son of God, also himself suffered the death that is part of the human condition. Yet, despite his anguish as he faced death, he accepted it in an act of complete and free submission to his Father’s will. (574) The obedience of Jesus has transformed the curse of death into a blessing. (575)

574. He took with him Peter,and James, and John, and began to be troubled. And he said to them, “My soul is very sorrowful, even to death; remain here, and watch.” (Mk14:33-34). In the days of his flesh, Jesus offered up prayers and supplications with loud cries and tears, to him who was able to him who was able to save him from death, and he was for his godly fear. Although he was a Son, he learned obedience through what he suffered; (Heb5:7-8). 575. The saying is sure, If we have died with him,we shall also live with him. (2 Tim2:11)

* The meaning of Christian death

1010 Because of Christ, Christian death has a positive meaning: “For to me to live is Christ, and to die is gain.”(576) “The saying is sure: if we have died with him, we will also live with him.(577) What is essentially new about Christian death is this: through Baptism, the Christian has already “died with Christ” sacramentally, in order to live a new life; and if we die in Christ’s grace, physical death completes this “dying with Christ” and so completes our incorporation into him in his redeeming act:

576. Confidence in your obedience , I write to you, knowing that you will do even more than I say. (Phil1:21) 577. (2Tim2:11) Ibid. It is better for me to die in (eis) Christ Jesus than to reign over the ends of the earth. Him it is I seek – who died for us. Him it is I desire – who rose for us. I am on the point of giving birth. . . . Let me receive pure light; when I shall have arrived there, then shall I be a man.(578)

578. So you must consider yourselves dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus. (Rom6:11).

1011 In death, God calls man to himself. Therefore the Christian can experience a desire for death like St. Paul’s: “My desire is to depart and be with Christ. “(579) He can transform his own death into an act of obedience and love towards the Father, after the example of Christ:(580) My earthly desire has been crucified; . . . there is living water in me, water that murmurs and says within me: Come to the Father. (581) I want to see God and, in order to see him, I must die. (582) I am not dying; I am entering life. (583)

579. I am hard pressed between the two. My desire is to depart and be with Christ, for that is far better. (Phil1:23) 580. And He said to him,”Truly truly I say to you will be with me in paradise.” (Lk23:43). 581. What shall we say then? Are we to continue in sin that grace may abound? By no means! How can we who died to sin still live in it? (Rom6:1-2). 582. St Teresa of Avila ch 1. 583. St Teresa L Lisieux The Last Conversations

1012 The Christian vision of death receives privileged expression in the liturgy of the Church: (584) Lord, for your faithful people life is changed, not ended. When the body of our earthly dwelling lies in death we gain an everlasting dwelling place in heaven. (585)

584. But we would not have ignorant, brethren concerning those who are asleep, that you may not grieve as others do who have no hope. For since we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so, through Jesus, God will bring with him who have fallen asleep. (1Thes4:13-14). 585. roman missal Preface Christian Death.

1013 Death is the end of man’s earthly pilgrimage, of the time of grace and mercy which God offers him so as to work out his earthly life in keeping with the divine plan, and to decide his ultimate destiny. When “the single course of our earthly life” is completed, (586) we shall not return to other earthly lives: “It is appointed for men to die once.”( 587) There is no “reincarnation” after death.

586. LG48 p3.   587. And just as it is appointed for men to die once, and after that comes judgment, (Heb9:27)

1014 The Church encourages us to prepare ourselves for the hour of our death. In the ancient litany of the saints, for instance, she has us pray: “From a sudden and unforeseen death, deliver us, O Lord”; (588) to ask the Mother of God to intercede for us “at the hour of our death” in the Hail Mary; and to entrust ourselves to St. Joseph, the patron of a happy death. Every action of yours, every thought, should be those of one who expects to die before the day is out. Death would have no great terrors for you if you had a quiet conscience. . . . Then why not keep clear of sin instead of running away from death? If you aren’t fit to face death today, it’s very unlikely you will be tomorrow. (589) Praised are you, my Lord, for our sister bodily Death, from whom no living man can escape.
Woe on those who will die in mortal sin!
Blessed are they who will be found in your most holy will, for the second death will not harm them.(590)

588. Roman Missal Liturgy of the Saints 589. The Imitation of Christ 1,23,1 590. St Francs of Assisi, “Conticle of the Creature.”

IN BRIEF:

1015 “The flesh is the hinge of salvation” (Tertullian, De res. 8, 2:PL 2, 852). We believe in God who is creator of the flesh; we believe in the Word made flesh in order to redeem the flesh; we believe in the resurrection of the flesh, the fulfillment of both the creation and the redemption of the flesh.

1016 By death the soul is separated from the body, but in the resurrection God will give incorruptible life to our body, transformed by reunion with our soul. Just as Christ is risen and lives for ever, so all of us will rise at the last day.

1017 “We believe in the true resurrection of this flesh that we now possess” (Council of Lyons II: DS 854). We sow a corruptible body in the tomb, but he raises up an incorruptible body, a “spiritual body” (cf. 1 Cor 15:42-44).

1018 As a consequence of original sin, man must suffer “bodily death, from which man would have been immune had he not sinned” (GS § 18).

1019 Jesus, the Son of God, freely suffered death for us in complete and free submission to the will of God, his Father. By his death he has conquered death, and so opened the possibility of salvation to all men.


And at that time shall ST. Michael stand up, the great prince which stand for the children of thy people: and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time: and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt. And they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever. (Dn12:1-3) (final Judgement)

532 Cf. Jn 6:39-40. http://www.scborromeo.org/ccc/p123a11.htm
533 Rom 8:11; cf. 1 Thess 4:14; 1 Cor 6:14; 2 Cor 4:14; Phil 3:10-11.
534 Cf. Gen 6:3; Ps 56:5; Isa 40:6.
535 Rom 8:11.
536 Tertullian, De res. 1,1:PL 2,841.
537 1 Cor 15:12-14.
538 2 Macc 7:9.
539 2 Macc 7:14; cf. 7:29; Dan 12:1-13.
540 Mk 12:24; cf. Jn 11:24; Acts 23:6.
541 Mk 12:27.
542 Jn 11:25.
543 Cf. Jn 5:24-25; 6:40,54.
544 Cf. Mk 5:21-42; Lk 7:11-17; Jn 11.
545 Mt 12:39.
546 Cf. Mk 10:34; Jn 2:19-22.
547 Acts 1:22; 10:41; cf. 4:33.
548 Cf. Acts 17:32; 1 Cor 15:12-13.
549 St. Augustine, En. in Ps. 88,5:PL 37,1134.
550 Jn 5:29; cf. Dan 12:2. (see below)
551 Lk 24:39.
552 Lateran Council IV (1215): DS 801; Phil 3:21; 1 Cor 15:44.
555 1 Cor 15:35-37,42,52,53.
556 St. Irenaeus, Adv. haeres. 4,18,4-5:PG 7/1,1028-1029.
557 Jn 6: 39-40,44,54; 11:24; LG 48 § 3.
558 1 Thess 4:16.
559 Col 2:12; 3:1.
560 Col 3:3; cf. Phil 3:20.
561 Eph 2:6.
562 Col 3:4.
563 1 Cor 6:13-15,19-20.
564 2 Cor 5:8.
565 Cf. Phil 1:23.
566 Cf. Paul VI, CPG § 28.
567 GS 18.
568 Rom 6:23; cf. Gen 2:17.
569 Cf. Rom 6:3-9; Phil 3:10-11.
570 Eccl 12:1,7.
571 Cf. Gen 2:17; 3:3; 3:19; Wis 1:13; Rom 5:12; 6:23; DS 1511.
572 Cf. Wis 2:23-24.
573 GS 18 § 2; cf. 1 Cor 15:26.
574 Cf. Mk 14:33-34; Heb 5:7-8.
575 Cf. Rom 5:19-21.
576 Phil 1:21.
577 2 Tim 2:11.
578 St. Ignatius of Antioch, Ad Rom.,6,1-2:Apostolic Fathers,II/2,217-220.
579 Phil 1:23.
580 Cf. Lk 23:46.
581 St. Ignatius of Antioch, Ad Rom.,6,1-2:Apostolic Fathers,II/2,223-224.
582 St. Teresa of Avila, Life, chap. 1.
583 St. Therese of Lisieux, The Last Conversations.
584 Cf. 1 Thess 4:13-14.
585 Roman Missal, Preface of Christian Death I.
586 LG 48 § 3.
587 Heb 9:27.
588 Roman Missal, Litany of the Saints.
587 The Imitation of Christ,1,23,1.
588 St. Francis of Assisi, Canticle of the Creatures. Readings-{Ps88 or89,144








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