For perpetual remembrance November 18, 1302,His Holiness Pope Boniface VIII, Servant of the servants of God.
1. Urged by faith, we are obliged to believe and to hold that there is One Holy Catholic and truly Apostolic Church. And this we firmly believe and simply confess: outside of Her, there is neither salvation, nor the remission of sins, just as the Bridegroom in the Canticles proclaims: “One is my dove, my perfect one. One is her mother; elect is she who bore her.” [Canticles 6:8]. And this represents the one mystical body, whose head is Christ, and truly God [is the head] of Christ. [1 Corinthians 11:3] In Her, there is one Lord, one faith, one baptism. [Ephesians 4:5] For certainly, in the time of the Flood, the ark of Noah was one, prefiguring the one Church. And She, having been completed by [the measure of] one cubit, [Genesis 6:16] had one pilot and helmsman, that is, Noah. And outside of Her, everything standing upon the land, as we read, had been destroyed. (i)[Genesis 7:23, Luke 17:27]
2. Thus, we venerate Her as the only one, just as the Lord said by the prophet: “O God, rescue my soul from the spear, and my only one from the hand of the dog.” [Psalm 21:21] But he prayed for the soul, that is, for his very self, head and body together. And this body, which he named as the only one, is certainly the Church, because of the Bridegroom, the Faith, the Sacraments, and the love of the Church, united. She is that seamless tunic of the Lord which was not torn, [John 19:23-24] but was distributed by lot.
3. And so, the one and only Church is one body, one head, (not two heads like a monster), Christ certainly, and the vicar of Christ, (who is) Peter and the successor of Peter. For the Lord said to Peter himself, “Feed my sheep.”[John 21:17] He said “my” generally, not solely of these or of those. By this, it is understood that all [universas] were committed to him. Therefore, if either the Greeks or others declare themselves not to be committed to Peter and his successors, they necessarily admit themselves not to be among the sheep of Christ, just as the Lord says in John, “there is one sheepfold, and only one shepherd.” [John 10:16]
4. We are instructed in the Gospel sayings that in Her and within Her power, there are two swords, specifically, the spiritual and the temporal. For the Apostles say, “Behold, there are two swords here,” that is, in the Church. But when the Apostles were speaking, the Lord did not respond, “it is too much,” but “it is sufficient.” [Luke 22:38] Certainly, whoever denies that the temporal sword is in the power of Peter, misunderstands the word of the Lord, saying: “Put your sword into its sheath.” [Matthew 26:52] Therefore, both are in the power of the Church, namely, the spiritual sword and the material. But indeed, the latter is to be exercised on behalf of the Church; and truly, the former is to be exercised by the Church. The former is of the priest; the latter is by the hand of kings and soldiers, but at the will and sufferance of the priest.
NOTES The Latin word ‘patientiam,’ in this context is translated as ‘sufferance,’ indicating a type of permission. But sufferance (patientiam) can also refer to a toleration for act that are contrary to one’s will, to a certain forbearance, to restraint in exercising a right in the face of some degree of injustice or harm.
St. Bernard (De Consideratione, Lib. iv. c. 3) writes:
“And both therefore, are of the Church, specifically, both the spiritual sword and the material. But indeed, the latter is to be exercised on behalf of the Church; and truly the former is to be exercised by the Church; the former is of the priest, the latter is by the hand of the soldier, but truly at the will of the priest and the order of the emperor.”
[My translation of the Latin found in: Dr. Johann Karl Ludwig Gieseler, A Text-book of Church History, (Harper Brothers: New York, 1857), p. 351.]
5. Now one sword ought to be under the other sword, and so the temporal authority is to be subject to the spiritual authority. For though the Apostle said: “there is no authority except from God and those who have been ordained by God,” [Romans 13:1] still they would not have been ordained unless one sword were under the other sword. And so what is inferior should be led forward by another, to what is highest. For, according to blessed Dionysius, it is a law of divine power that what is lowest is to be led forward by what is intermediate, to what is highest.
Certainly, by ‘what is highest’ (suprema) is meant God Himself, for so Dionysius explicitly states in the text from which this teaching is drawn:
“This, then, is the all-sacred Law of the Godhead, that, through the first, the second are conducted to Its most Divine splendor.”
[English text from: Dionysius the Areopagite, Works (1897), Volume 2, The Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, chapter 5, section 4.]
This “blessed Dionysius” is certainly the man called Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite, an author of several important works of Christian theology, including ‘The Ecclesiastical Hierarchy,’ which was relied upon in Unam Sanctam, n. 5 above. The true identity of this Dionysius, who wrote under the pseudonym of the convert from paganism mentioned in Acts 17:34, is hidden in obscurity. He appears to be a late fifth century Catholic priest who himself was converted from paganism. But despite his near-anonymity, his works have achieved a prominent place in Catholic theology. See these websites:
1998 Speech of Pope John Paul II
6. Therefore, it is not in accord with the order of the universe that all things should be absolutely equal, but rather the lowest through the intermediate, and the lower through the higher, in order. And so, to whatever extent the spiritual power excels beyond the worldly, in both dignity and rank, we must, to the same extent, clearly admit that the spiritual surpasses the temporal. And this, nevertheless, we distinguish with clear eyes from the gift of tithes, and from benediction and sanctification, by the reception of the authority itself, and by the government of the things themselves. For truth is the witness that the spiritual authority holds [the ability] to establish the earthly authority, and to judge if it might not have been good. And this, concerning the Church and the authority of the Church, the prophecy of Jeremiah verifies: “Behold, today I have appointed you over nations and kingdoms” [Jeremiah 1:10] and the rest that follows.
7. Therefore, if the earthly power goes astray, it will be judged by the spiritual power; but if a lesser spiritual power goes astray, [it will be judged] by its superior; and truly, if the highest [power] goes astray, it will not be able to be judged by man, but by God alone. And so the Apostle testifies, “The spiritual man judges all things, but he himself is judged by no one.” [1 Corinthians 2:15]
Notes: This last part of the passage is based almost word for word upon Hugo de St. Victor, De Sacramentis, II. 2, 4. — “The spiritual authority holds [the ability] so that it may establish the earthly authority, and holds [the ability] to judge if it might not have been good.”
[My translation of the Latin found in: Rev. Johannes Baptist Alzog, Manual of Universal Church History, Volume 2, (Gill and Son: Dublin, 1890), p. 448-449.]
8. But this authority, even though it may be given to a man, and may be exercised by a man, is not human, but rather divine [power] , having been given by the divine mouth [of Christ] to Peter, and to him as well as to his successors, by [Christ] Himself, [that is, to him] whom He had disclosed to be the firm rock, just as the Lord said to Peter himself: “Whatever you shall bind,” [Matthew 16:19] etc. Therefore, whoever resists this authority, such as it has been ordain by God, resists the ordination of God. [Romans 13:2] Otherwise, he would be proposing two principles to exist, as did Manichaeus, and this we judge to be false and heretical. For Moses testified that God created heaven and earth, not in the beginnings, but “in the beginning.” [Genesis 1:1]
9. Moreover, that every human creature is to be subject to the Roman pontiff, we declare, we state, we define, and we pronounce to be entirely from the necessity of salvation.
Notes: Saint Thomas Aquinas, opusc. contra errores Graec. fol. 9“For it is revealed that subjection to the Roman Pontiff is from the necessity of salvation.”
[My translation of the Latin found in: Dr. Johann Karl Ludwig Gieseler, A Text-book of Church History, (Harper Brothers: New York, 1857), p. 351.] These notes and translation, by Ronald L. Conte Jr., are hereby placed in the public domain.]
Given at the Lateran,18 November 1302, in year eight of our pontificate. Authoritative Teaching!
(i) City biblical word search: footnotes” One shepherd and one flock related: Consistent with the above Teaching. IMO
(i) Boniface ref. paragraph #1: “And he destroyed all the substance that was upon the earth, from man even to beast, and the creeping things and fowls of the air: and they were destroyed from the earth: and Noe only remained, and they that were with him in the ark.” [Genesis 7:23] “They did eat and drink, they married wives, and were given in marriage, until the day that Noe entered into the ark: and the flood came and destroyed them all.” [Luke 17:27]
(ii) One fold, and One Shepherd:
“And other sheep I have, that are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice, and there shall be one fold and one shepherd.” [John 10:16]
“And may go out and in before them, and may lead them out, or bring them in: lest the people of the Lord be as sheep without a shepherd.” [Numbers 27:17] “For you were as sheep going astray; but you are now converted to the shepherd and bishop of your souls.”[1 Peter 2:25]
am the good shepherd. The good shepherd give his life for his
But the hireling, and he that is not the shepherd, whose own the sheep are not, see the wolf coming, and leave the sheep, and fly: and the wolf catch, and scatter the sheep:” [John 10:11-12]
“Amen, amen I say to you: He that enter not by the door into the sheepfold, but climb up another way, the same is a thief and a robber.” But he that enter in by the door is the shepherd of the sheep.” [John 10:1-2]
“He hath mercy, and teach, and correct, as a shepherd doth his flock.” [Ecclesiasticus (Sirach) 18:13]
Hear the word of the Lord, O ye nations, and declare it in the islands that are afar off, and say: He that scattered Israel will gather him: and he will keep him as the shepherd doth his flock.” [Jeremias (Jeremiah) 31:10]
“Behold one shall come up as a lion from the swelling of the Jordan, against the strong and beautiful: for I will make him run suddenly upon her: and who shall be the chosen one whom I may appoint over her? for who is like to me? and who shall abide me? and who is that shepherd that can withstand my countenance?”[Jeremias (Jeremiah) 49:19]
“Behold he shall come
up like a lion from the swelling of the Jordan to the strong and
beautiful: for I will make him run suddenly upon her: and who
shall be the chosen one whom I may appoint over her?
for who is like to me? and who shall bear up
against me? and who is that shepherd that can withstand my
“The words of the wise are as goads, and as nails deeply fastened in, which by the counsel of masters are given from one shepherd.”[Ecclesiastes 12:11]
“And my servant David shall be king over them, and they shall have one shepherd: they shall walk in my judgments, and shall keep my commandments, and shall do them.” [Ezechiel (Ezekiel) 37:24]
“AND I WILL SET UP ONE SHEPHERD OVER THEM, and he shall feed them, even my servant David: he shall feed them, and he shall be their shepherd.” [Ezechiel (Ezekiel) 34:23]
“He shall feed his flock like a shepherd: he shall gather together the lambs with his arm, and shall take them up in his bosom, and he himself shall carry them that are with young.” [Isaias (Isaiah) 40:11]
(iii) Two City’s of God: One hears His Voice the Second does NOT
And again she brought forth his brother Abel. And Abel was a shepherd, and Cain a husbandman.” [Genesis 4:2]
“For if any one were a husbandman, or a shepherd, or a laborer in the field, and was suddenly overtaken, he endured a necessity from which he could not fly.“[Wisdom 17:16]
“And all nations shall be gathered together before him, and he shall separate them one from another, as the shepherd separate the sheep from the goats:” [Matthew 25:32]
(iv) Sheep without a shepherd: The Lost Sheep
seeing the multitudes, he had compassion on them: because they were
distressed, and lying like sheep that have no shepherd.”
Then Jesus said to them: All you shall be scandalized in me this night. For it is written: I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be dispersed.” [Matthew 26:31]
“And Jesus going out saw a great multitude: and he had compassion on them, because they were as sheep not having a shepherd, and he began to teach them many things.” [Mark 6:34]
“Awake, O sword,
against my shepherd, and against the man that cleave to me, saith the
Lord of hosts: strike the shepherd, and the
sheep shall be scattered: and I will
turn my hand to the little ones.” [Zacharias (Zechariah) 13:7]
“As I live, saith the Lord God, for as much as my flocks have been made a spoil, and my sheep are become a prey to all the beasts of the field, because there was no shepherd:for my shepherds did not seek after my flock, but the shepherds fed themselves, and fed not my flocks:” [Ezechiel (Ezekiel) 34:8] “And my sheep were scattered, because there was no shepherd: and they became the prey of all the beasts of the field, and were scattered.” [Ezechiel (Ezekiel) 34:5]
And he will tell me when he will repay them for their sins, and I will come and tell thee, so that I may bring thee through the midst of Jerusalem, and thou shalt have all the people of Israel, as sheep that have no shepherd, and there shall not so much as one dog bark against thee:” [Judith 11:15]
“And he said: I saw all Israel scattered upon the hills, like sheep that have no shepherd: and the Lord said: These have no master: let every man of them return to his house in peace.” [3 Kings (1 Kings) 22:17]
“Then he said: I saw all Israel scattered in the mountains,like sheep without a shepherd:and the Lord said: These have no masters: let every man return to his own house in peace.” [2 Paralipomenon (2 Chronicles) 18:16]